''In 1856, voting by the free black people (present day Red Bones) of Ten Mile Creek Precinct in what is now Allen Parish, Louisiana, became a source of public concern. Several were tried for illegal voting for free Negroes did not have the franchise but they were acquitted when their colored ancestry could not be proven and the judge would not permit the jury to evaluate them by their appearance.''
 Arkansas Toothpick

RED BONE, Talbot County. (Georgia)
This early community
was located at the site of the present YPSILANTI
(q.v.). The name is taken from an old Indian
chief, Red Bone, who was born here.


[New York]



 There are a singular race of people in South Carolina called the Redbones. Their origin is unknown. They resemble in appearance the gypsies, but in complexion they are red. They have accumulated considerable property and are industrious and peaceable. They live in small settlements at the foot of the mountains and associated with none but their own race. They are a proud and high spirited people. Caste is very strong among them. They enjoy life, visit the watering places and mountain resorts, but eat by themselves and keep by themselves. When the war broke out several of them enlisted in the Hampton legion, and when the legion reached Virginia there was a great outcry among the Virginians and the troops from other states because we had enlisted Negroes. They did not resemble the African in the least, except in cases where Africans had amalgamated with Indians. This intermixture, which is common in the Carolinas, produces marvelous results. It takes the kink out of the hair of the African, straightens his features and improve him in every way except in temper---Interview with Senator Hampton.-------------

LAKE CHARLES, LA.,   AUG 5, --About  twenty miles northwest of Lake Charles is a logging camp owned by Locke, Moore & Company, mill men, and they have a tram railway about twenty miles long, running from Tidewater, on the Calcasien river, out into the pinery, the outer end of which is near Beckwith creek.
Along Beckwith creek there are some citizens who, it is said have Indian blood in them, and they are called " Red Bones."  The men who are employed on this loggery and the  "Red Bones" from some cause hated each other, and several times fights have occurred, but nothing serious until last Sunday.
It is told here and is perhaps as near correct as we can get, that on Friday the "Red bones" ordered one Morris, on the tram road, to leave.
On Sunday, about 10 o’clock a.m., some of the tram road boys went to a whisky shop about two miles from the road.  There they met several "Redbones," and Jesse Ward, of the tram road, shot and killed Dyson, a "Red Bone."
Ward then was killed by the "Red Bones," and firing became general.  Marion Markle and Lee Perkin, of the "Red Bones," were killed, and Willetts, Dupree and Lecombe were wounded.
In the afternoon more men from the tram came out and the fight was renewed.  This time Swan, of the tram boys, and Owen Ashworth, of the "Redbones," were killed.
Dr. Meyers and his brother, who had come to attend the wounded, were fired on by the tram boys but were not hurt.  Every thing now is quiet.

Railroad Employees Get on a Spree and Raise a Disturbance Which Results in the Killing of Several Men and the Wounding of Many More--Friends Who Come to Attend the Wounded Fired Upon.
Lake Charles, La., Aug . 5. --At the logging camp of Lockmore&Co., near this place, a free fight occurred.  Some of the men employed on the little railroad running to the lumber camp went to a whisky shop where they met several ‘red bones’ or half-breeds.  Jesse Ward, one of the railroaders, shot and killed a red bone named Dyson.  Ward was then killed by the red bones.
Firing then became general and Lee Perkins and Marion Markley of the redbones were killed and Willets Dupree and a man named Lecomb were wounded.
Later on the men from the tramway came out and the fight was renewed.  This time Swan of the tram boys and Owen Ashworth of the red bones were killed
Dr. Meyers and his brother, who had come to attend the wounded, were fired on by the tram boys, but were not hurt.

Lafayette Advertiser

The grand jury at Lake Charles found bills of indictment for murder against ten persons implicated in the "Redbones" riot and killing, near Lock, Moore & Co.’s lumber camp, some six weeks ago, to-wit; Josh Perkins, Dempsey Dial, Austin Ainsworth and Louis Dupre, of the Redbones, and G. Hooker Morris, Rufus Mouton, Olly Gleason, Jesse Hilton, Wm. Yellat and Jame Bagget.

South Carolina’s "Red Bones."
Have you ever heard of a class of people called "red bones?" said Lewis Marshall, of Charlston, S. C.  "They are the most peculiar people in the United States.  No one living absolutely knows the race from which they sprang or whence the original settlers came.  They live very nearly on the boundary line between South Carolina and Georgia, in the northwesternn part of
thefirst-names State.  They are very clannish, mix very little with people not of their race, and in a manner are quite thrifty.  I am of the opinion that they are descendants of the Basques of Southern France.  They do now lack courage, for a company of them served in Hampton’s legion during the late Civil War, and bore themselves bravely at the first Manassas.  Their skin is of a swarthy red, resembling that of the Indian, but at that point all resemblance ceases, except to be that they are very hot of temper.  I have often wondered why the  ethnologists of this country have not studied these people.  Surely a monograph on them would be highly interesting."
Bennettsville May 17, 1893
Mr. McDonald Furman

My Dear Sir

Yours of 13th inst is before me and in reply let me say
that I not only appreciate your laudable desire to rescue the traditions of
an obscure race, sometimes wronged, from oblivion, but to call the public
mind to a number of important facts of our brief history, both secular and
religious, which in the eager haste of this fast age, our people are liable
to forget. Your brief, but important, communication to the public press
calling attention to things of this sort have always interested one reader
at least. You will permit me to thank you very sincerely, that you, young
man, as you are, have respect to the days, and the men of "auld lang syne"
and can find interest and worth, if not beauty and charms amid the bygone
years. And I trust that if the response of your contemporaries is not
always as generous as your fond wishes may desire, that still your inquiries
may bring to light facts and principles, that shall gratify and profit your
own mind, and help your generation, and those who shall come after.

The question now upon your mind, of which you write me
is not unworthy your research. And I wish that I were able to give you more
information than I can. Of course the people of "mixed breed," that we
have among us in Marlborough are not known as "Redbones," and not until
recently have they been called "Croatans," a name which some of them are now
adopting. For generations, they have claimed to have been of "Portuguese"
extraction, while commonly the white people have thought them mulattos.
Since the "Revolutionary War" the Quicks and a few other names connected
with them, have enjoyed the respect of white people; and all the privileges
of citizenship were accorded them in consideration of "distinguished
services," they rendered to the cause of independence. And the consequence
has been that their complexion, their circumstances and general character
has wonderfully improved, until now they are scarcely recognized as having
"mixed blood" in their veins. You can see how on account of the special
favor shown this family, other men of "mixed breed" would naturally claim
and seek alliances with them: and so it came to pass in the years "before
the war between the states," that questions would sometimes arise as to the
citizenship of parties making the claim as only free whites were so
accounted and many a long controversy arose in the courts over such "points
in law." Judge Hudsen, was attorney in a case of this sort, and made a very
thorough investigation of the question of descent and has told me more than
once that he was satisfied that "several of the larger families of this
color, were free from Negro blood." He says that "they have a well
authenticated claim that they sprang from a parentage that came from the
south of Europe, Spain or Portugal, and that with this European blood was
probably some Moorish, but no evidence of Negro." Other families claim
affinity with the American Indian and there can be little doubt but that
their claim is just, as they have the natural characteristic marks of that
aboriginal people clearly developed. While everybody believes, that some
who claim to be Indian, or Moor, are unquestionably mixed with Negro.

You ask me if we have "any Chavis" in Marlborough?
They are here, and have been for two or three generations, and are among the
best known people we have after the Quicks. And it is very likely that they
have intermarried. Why, Sir, if you were here to accompany me to one of my
appointments next Sunday, and take a seat in the "a.... corner," [might be
Arian!] just about the hour for the service to commence, looking through the
window blinds, you might see a "covered buggy with two horses (or mules)
drive up, and presently a young man about "six foot three" would enter the
door, lift his beaver, and with slow and courtly tread walk down the aisle,
"straight as an arrow, raven locks, prominent raised cheeks, complexion
brownish red," and take a seat about mid way the house, and if you were not
looking for "Redbones," you might ask, "what fine looking well behaved young
man is that," well that is "Lewis Chavis." He has a valuable farm, a "good
bank account," his mother owns a fine place, and valuable mortgages, and he
has a younger brother just as good looking, only not quite so tall. And has
some cousins that are enterprising valuable citizens. But there are others
of the name, not so well to do, and not so well received in social circles.
These better ones however when they open their lips, betray their origins as
they tell you of the "housens"and "chillens," etc.

And then we have a large family of Locklears, another
of Jacob Turners (?), in making a society and class of their own, who do not
seem to aspire to anything higher. Poor pitiable creatures, they scorn (?)
to associate with Negroes, cannot with the better class of whites, and yet
many of them are good people, industrious, honest, humble citizens. Of
course you will find vicious, envious, worthless fellows among them, but no
more than many a "pale face" or "black skin." They have two Baptist
churches in Marlborough, one of them located near the little town of Clio,
where they have a large congregation, and well behaved. And the existence
of the church, and a comfortable framed building to worship in, makes them a
fixture in the community, and an advantage in the way of farm laborers. The
other is in the upper part of the county and is not doing so well, I judge
mainly for lack of a sensible pastor. The young man who does most of their
preaching, being a noisy, ignorant sort of fellow, and yet sharp enough to
keep his place among them. This latter church is known, in doctrine and
practice, as badly mixed as the blood of its members. Feet washing, free
will, immersionists. And yet the leading people of the community, who are
mostly Methodists, enjoy having the church among them because it moralizes
and improves the character, as well as settles and fixes laborers on their

Now I have filled up my space, and fear that with it
all I have not met your wishes, as I certainly desired to do. If however
from what I have written you shall suppose that I may yet help you in the
way of information you will not hesitate to command me. With the kindest
regards to your excellent father and profound veneration for your honored
name through three generations, I am yours with great respect

J.A.W. Thomas
James Mooney, with the Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute, wrote in, "The Handy Book of American Indians North of Mexico, "That, he thought the Indians of Robeson County ,NorthCarolina, (Croatan/Lumbees) combine in themselves the blood of the wasted tribes, the early colonists of forest rivers, runaway slaves, or other Negroes, and probably stray seaman of Latin races from coasting vessels from the West Indies or Brazilian trade.” In 1897, Mr. Mooney wrote to Charles McDonald Furman that, "He felt that the Croatans, Redbones, Melungeons, Moors, and Portuguese were all local names for mixed Indian races along the Atlantic seaboard, with westward drift into the mountains." And stated, "It would be worth while of local investigators to go into the subject systematically. I think possibly the Indian remnants may have married with the convict apprentice importation of early colony days as well as with the free Negro element." Mr. Furman was considered by Mooney and other officials as the most informed person on the Redbones and Catawba Indians in Privateer Township, Sumter County, South Carolina. He had tried in vain to get the state of South Carolina to study the Redbones, and chastised state officials for being interested in exotic peoples in other countries, but ignoring a most unusual people right here at home. Furman could not define the Redbones and he believed them a separate race of their own.

The 1907 Smithsonian Institute's Bureau of Ethnology's, "Handy Book of American Indians," defined the Melungeons of Hancock County, Tennessee, formerly of North Carolina, as, "Said to be a mixture of white, Indian and Negro.” "The American Heritage Dictionary" and the "Dictionary of English Language" both state, "Origin unknown for the Appalachia Melungeons." These early authorities knew of no other people here but the free person of color, Anglo, Negro, and Indian. They were as mystified as we were about them. Their assumptions of, "I see them, said to be, felt they were, think they are," as well as "unknown," now appear to be construed to mean tri-racial, and to be the true facts. By 1981, these guesses had become fact for the Webster's "Third New International Dictionary." They confidently defined the Melungeons as, "One of a small group of dark skinned people of mixed Indian, White and Negro ancestry in Southern Appalachians of Eastern Tennessee."



By Don Marler

Redbone Genealolgy Forum

McDonald Furman Collection

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